U.S. cash use and Federal Reserve payment and receipt volumes have stabilized since the start of the pandemic, but Federal Reserve volume has become more volatile. This volatility introduces complexity at a time when the U.S. currency program implements new machines, new sensors, new currency design, operational automation, in parallel with the Federal Reserve’s new real-time gross settlement system. Given these challenges, is the cash supply chain ready for continued complexity and increased volatility? The Federal Reserve is pursuing new strategies and emphasizing collaboration throughout the supply chain to address these challenges and ensure the resiliency of U.S. currency distribution.